Electric Car

What is the Control System and Unit in Electric Vehicles?

The control unit is perhaps the most complex part of electric vehicles. Therefore, understanding the structure and working system of this part is extremely important for electric vehicle owners. Let’s take a closer look at the electric vehicle control unit and system that manages the electric vehicle and ensures its correct operation!

Vehicle components are one of the most curious topics about electric vehicles . The control systems and operating principles of electric vehicles (EV), which have a much different and technological internal component compared to internal combustion engine vehicles, are among the main issues that occupy the minds of users. Come on, now sit back and fasten your seat belt. We are about to set out to learn the control systems that are critical for electric and hybrid vehicles !

1. What is the Control System in Electric Vehicles?

We can call the electric vehicle control system a brain that ensures the correct operation of the vehicle. The control system assumes the management role for important electric vehicle components such as the electric motor and battery. The electric vehicle control system has subsystems designed to accurately coordinate all parts of the vehicle. In other words, this mechanism ensures that all these systems in the vehicle work in harmony with each other.

2. What Does the Control System Do in Electric Vehicles?

The control system basically has one task in electric vehicles: To manage. However, this task involves many different systems. The control system has subsystems that manage a certain mechanism of the vehicle, such as the battery, charging system and engine. These control systems only manage the mechanism they are related to. For example; The engine control system is solely responsible for the operation of the engine. This system has no connection with other vehicle mechanics.

The vehicle also has an electronic control system. We can also call this system the main control unit. The electronic control system checks whether the different systems of the vehicle are working in harmony. For example; The electric vehicle battery is responsible for storing the vehicle’s power, that is, its charge. It is vital that this part works in harmony with the engine, providing sufficient power to the engine and the movement of the vehicle. This harmony is provided by the electronic control system.

3. What are the Control Systems in Electric Vehicles?

  1. Engine control system: This system manages the operation of the electric motor, which is vital for electric vehicles . The engine control system optimizes the performance of the vehicle by controlling the speed, torque and power of the engine.
  2. Battery management system: The battery management system monitors and controls the vehicle’s battery. This system monitors temperature, voltage, current and other parameters, ensuring the battery operates safely and efficiently.
  3. Charging control system: In electric vehicles , the charging control system ensures that the battery is charged correctly by controlling the charging current and voltage.
  4. Brake energy recovery system: As the name suggests, the brake energy recovery system works to convert the kinetic energy generated when braking in electric vehicles into electrical energy. This system increases the range of the vehicle and provides energy efficiency by returning the energy generated during braking to the battery.
  5. Ride control system: The ride control system controls the driving dynamics of the vehicle. This system manages the reactions of the accelerator and brake pedals, adjusts driving modes and optimizes the vehicle’s driving performance.
  6. Security systems: There are various security components among the control systems used in electric vehicles. For example; Systems such as airbags, anti-lock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program (ESP) ensure the safety of the vehicle and the protection of the passengers.

3. What are the Control Components in Electric Vehicles?

  1. Electronic control unit (ECU): The electronic control unit is the central computer unit that manages the entire control systems of electric vehicles. Engine control, battery management, charging control, brake energy recovery and all other functions are controlled by this unit.
  2. Accelerator pedal sensor: This sensor controls the power and speed of the electric motor by detecting the movements applied by the driver to the accelerator pedal.
  3. Braking system: The regenerative braking system used in electric vehicles converts the kinetic energy generated during braking into electrical energy. The control units of this system manage the recovery of brake energy.
  4. Charging port control: This control component controls the ports where electric vehicles are charged. It checks whether the charging cable is connected and whether the vehicle is charged safely.
  5. Thermal management system: The thermal management system controls the temperature of the battery and motor of the electric vehicle. This system prevents electric vehicle components from overheating by managing the cooling and heating systems.

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